Visualizing Membrane Proteins Using X-ray and Electron
There are 1.7% coordinate files from membrane proteins deposited in the protein data bank. 20-30% of all ORFs genomic-wide are predicted to encode membrane proteins and more than 50% drug targets are membrane proteins. A major technical hurdle is to obtain conformationally homogeneous, stable and active pure proteins in sufficient amount. Driven by biological questions, meaningful structural information of membrane proteins and membrane protein complexes have been obtained using X-ray crystallography, Small-Angle X-ray Scattering (SAXS), cryo-Electron Microscopy (cryo-EM) and X-ray Free Electron Laser (XFEL). The study of membrane proteins will be further discussed.